Vitamins And Mineral Deficiency And Overdose Signs And Side Effects

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Vitamin or Mineral

Physical Signs of Deficiency


Overdose Side Effects

Vitamin A· Hair follicle blockage with a permanent “goose-bump” appearance

· Dry, rough, skin

· Small, grayish, foamy deposits on the conjunctiva adjacent to the cornea

· Drying of the eyes and mucous membranes

· Night blindness

· Decreased immunity

·  Headache

·  Birth defects

·  Liver problems

·  Osteoporosis and bone problems

·  Central nervous system disorders

·  Dry, scaly skin

·  Yellow/orange skin with toxicity of betacarotene

Vitamin D· Weakness of muscles

· Hypocalcemia

· Decreased bone density

·  Hypercalcemia

·  Weakness

·  Calcifications in the kidney and other soft tissues

·  Polyuria

·  Arrhythmias

Vitamin E· Peripheral neuropathy

· Impaired immune system

· Ataxia, eye issues

· Red blood cell problems

·  Bleeding

·  Hemorrhagic stroke

·  Premature death

·  Diarrhea

Vitamin K· Small hemorrhages in the skin or mucous membranes

· Bleeding

· Decreased bone density

·   Blood clots

·   Impairs action of anticoagulants


Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)· Weight loss

· Muscular wasting

· Sometimes edema (wet beriberi)

· Malaise

· Tense calf muscles

· Distended neck veins

· Jerky movement of eyes

· Staggering gait and difficulty walking

· Round, swollen (moon) face

· Foot and wrist drop

· No toxicity risk as been determined
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)· Tearing, burning, and itching of the eyes with fissuring in the corners of the eyes

· Soreness and burning of the lips, mouth, and tongue with fissuring and/or cracking of the lips and corners of the mouth

· Purple swollen tongue

· Seborrhea of the skin in the nasolabial folds, scrotum, or vulva

· Capillary overgrowth around the corneas

· No toxicity risk as been determined
Vitamin B3


· Dermatitis or skin eruptions

· Tremors

· Sore tongue

· Skin that is exposed to sunlight will develop cracks and a scaly form of dermatitis with pigmentation

· May also show signs of riboflavin deficiency

·  Stomach pain

·  Flushing

·  Yellow skin (jaundice)

·  Blurred vision

·  Hyperglycemia

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)· Tongue inflammation

· Inflammation of the lining of the mouth

· Fissures in the corners of the mouth

· Microcytic anemia

·  Peripheral neuropathy

·  Sensory ataxia, impairment of sensation of vibrations

·  Decreased sense of touch, temperature, and pain

Folate· Weakness, fatigue, and depression

· Change in skin, hair and fingernail pigmentation

· Dermatologic lesions

· Megaloblastic anemia

· Soreness and ulcerations in the tongue and oral mucosa

·  Provokes seizures in those taking anti-convulsion medications

·  Masks vitamin B12 deficiency

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)· Smooth, red, thickened tongue

· Megaloblastic anemia, fatigue, weakness

· Numbness and tingling of extremities

·  No toxicity risk as been determined
Vitamin C· Impaired wound healing

· Edema

· Swollen, bleeding, and/or retracted gums or tooth loss; mottled teeth; enamel erosion

· Lethargy and fatigue

· Skin lesions

· Small red or purplish pinpoint discolorations on the skin or mucous membranes (petechiae)

· Darkened skin around the hair follicles

· Corkscrew hair or unemerged, coiled hair

·  Acidic urine, nausea, and diarrhea

·  Impaired antioxidant-prooxidant balance in the body

·  Iron overload in patients with thalassemia or hemochromatosis

Iron· Skin pallor

· Pale conjuctivia

· Fatigue

· Thin, concave nails with raised edges

·  Nausea/vomiting/diarrhea

·  Difficulty breathing

·  Vertigo

·  Headache

·  Appetite loss

·  Grey color to skin

·  High doses may interact with calcium and zinc

Zinc· Delayed wound healing

· Hair loss

· Skin lesions

· Eye lesions

· Nasolabial seborrhea

· Impaired growth

· Appetite loss, taste changes

·  General body pain

·  Vomiting/diarrhea/nausea

·  Fever

·  Metallic taste

·  No urine output

·  Shortness of breath

·  High doses may interact with iron and copper

Copper· Hair and skin depigmentation

· Pallor

·  Stomach pain

·  Vomiting/diarrhea

·  Coughing

·  Yellow skin (jaundice)

·  Fever

·  Chills

·  Metallic taste

·  Soreness of muscles

·  No urine output

Calcium· Muscle cramps

· Convulsions

· Lethargy

· Abnormal heart rhythm

· Decreased bone density

·  Constipation

·  Kidney stones

·  High doses may interact with iron and copper





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