Vitamins And Mineral Deficiency And Overdose Signs And Side Effects

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  5. Vitamins And Mineral Deficiency And Overdose Signs And Side Effects

 

Vitamin or Mineral

Physical Signs of Deficiency

Vitamin

Overdose Side Effects

Vitamin A

  • Hair follicle blockage with a permanent “goose-bump” appearance
  • Dry, rough, skin
  • Small, grayish, foamy deposits on the conjunctiva adjacent to the cornea
  • Drying of the eyes and mucous membranes
  • Night blindness
  • Decreased immunity
  • Headache
  • Birth defects
  • Liver problems
  • Osteoporosis and bone problems
  • Central nervous system disorders
  • Dry, scaly skin
  • Yellow/orange skin with toxicity of betacarotene

Vitamin D

  • Weakness of muscles
  • Hypocalcemia
  • Decreased bone density
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Weakness
  • Calcifications in the kidney and other soft tissues
  • Polyuria
  • Arrhythmias

Vitamin E

  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Impaired immune system
  • Ataxia, eye issues
  • Red blood cell problems
  • Bleeding
  • Hemorrhagic stroke
  • Premature death
  • Diarrhea

Vitamin K

  • Small hemorrhages in the skin or mucous membranes
  • Bleeding
  • Decreased bone density
  • Blood clots
  • Impairs action of anticoagulants

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

  • Weight loss
  • Muscular wasting
  • Sometimes edema (wet beriberi)
  • Malaise
  • Tense calf muscles
  • Distended neck veins
  • Jerky movement of eyes
  • Staggering gait and difficulty walking
  • Round, swollen (moon) face
  • Foot and wrist drop
  • No toxicity risk as been determined

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

  • Tearing, burning, and itching of the eyes with fissuring in the corners of the eyes
  • Soreness and burning of the lips, mouth, and tongue with fissuring and/or cracking of the lips and corners of the mouth
  • Purple swollen tongue
  • Seborrhea of the skin in the nasolabial folds, scrotum, or vulva
  • Capillary overgrowth around the corneas
  • No toxicity risk as been determined

Vitamin B3

(Niacin)

  • Dermatitis or skin eruptions
  • Tremors
  • Sore tongue
  • Skin that is exposed to sunlight will develop cracks and a scaly form of dermatitis with pigmentation
  • May also show signs of riboflavin deficiency
  • Stomach pain
  • Flushing
  • Yellow skin (jaundice)
  • Blurred vision
  • Hyperglycemia

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

  • Tongue inflammation
  • Inflammation of the lining of the mouth
  • Fissures in the corners of the mouth
  • Microcytic anemia
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Sensory ataxia, impairment of sensation of vibrations
  • Decreased sense of touch, temperature, and pain

Folate

  • Weakness, fatigue, and depression
  • Change in skin, hair and fingernail pigmentation
  • Dermatologic lesions
  • Megaloblastic anemia
  • Soreness and ulcerations in the tongue and oral mucosa
  • Provokes seizures in those taking anti-convulsion medications
  • Masks vitamin B12 deficiency

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

  • Smooth, red, thickened tongue
  • Megaloblastic anemia, fatigue, weakness
  • Numbness and tingling of extremities
  • No toxicity risk as been determined

Vitamin C

  • Impaired wound healing
  • Edema
  • Swollen, bleeding, and/or retracted gums or tooth loss; mottled teeth; enamel erosion
  • Lethargy and fatigue
  • Skin lesions
  • Small red or purplish pinpoint discolorations on the skin or mucous membranes (petechiae)
  • Darkened skin around the hair follicles
  • Corkscrew hair or unemerged, coiled hair
  • Acidic urine, nausea, and diarrhea
  • Impaired antioxidant-prooxidant balance in the body
  • Iron overload in patients with thalassemia or hemochromatosis

Iron

  • Skin pallor
  • Pale conjuctivia
  • Fatigue
  • Thin, concave nails with raised edges
  • Nausea/vomiting/diarrhea
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Vertigo
  • Headache
  • Appetite loss
  • Grey color to skin
  • High doses may interact with calcium and zinc

Zinc

  • Delayed wound healing
  • Hair loss
  • Skin lesions
  • Eye lesions
  • Nasolabial seborrhea
  • Impaired growth
  • Appetite loss, taste changes
  • General body pain
  • Vomiting/diarrhea/nausea
  • Fever
  • Metallic taste
  • No urine output
  • Shortness of breath
  • High doses may interact with iron and copper

Copper

  • Hair and skin depigmentation
  • Pallor
  • Stomach pain
  • Vomiting/diarrhea
  • Coughing
  • Yellow skin (jaundice)
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Metallic taste
  • Soreness of muscles
  • No urine output

Calcium

  • Muscle cramps
  • Convulsions
  • Lethargy
  • Abnormal heart rhythm
  • Decreased bone density
  • Constipation
  • Kidney stones
  • High doses may interact with iron and copper

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